Laboratory instruments are tools and equipment used in scientific laboratories for various purposes, including research, experimentation, analysis, and measurement. These instruments are designed to perform specific functions accurately and reliably to support scientific investigations across different fields such as chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering. Here are some common types of laboratory instruments:

  1. Microscopes: Microscopes are used to magnify and visualize small objects or structures that are not visible to the naked eye. There are different types of microscopes, including optical (light) microscopes, electron microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes.
  2. Spectrophotometers: Spectrophotometers are used to measure the intensity of light absorption or emission by a sample as a function of wavelength. They are widely used in chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology for quantitative analysis and characterization of substances.
  3. Centrifuges: Centrifuges are used to separate particles or components of a sample based on their density and size by spinning the sample at high speeds. They are commonly used in biology, chemistry, and clinical laboratories for separating cells, proteins, DNA, and other biological molecules.
  4. Analytical Balances: Analytical balances are highly precise instruments used to measure the mass of substances with high accuracy. They are essential for quantitative analysis in chemistry, pharmaceuticals, and materials science.
  5. pH Meters: pH meters are used to measure the acidity or alkalinity (pH) of a solution. They are widely used in chemistry, biology, and environmental science for monitoring and controlling pH levels in experiments and processes.

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